Monday, October 9, 2017

European Literature Notes What is philosophy? Philo: love Sophia: wisdom An unusually persistent attempt to think something through clearly Transcend To be human is to be Is there such thing as truth? Philosophy: reality is how you view reality; therefore, you must lead the examined life because you might not have the right view, trying to overcome the ignorance of your ignorance Paradigm: what you think reality is, what motives humans more than anything else because we are afraid of the unknown Weltanschaung: one’s view of the world Subjective: inside the mind, non-material, idea Objective: anything outside the mind, including the brain, material There are 13 disciplines of philosophy: Metaphysics: “What is reality?”, the term is a pre-supposition (unconfirmed belief, supposing something beforehand), meta: above/beyond (the physical) Epistemology: theory of knowledge Ethics: what is happiness? (The Greeks) Logos: logic, order, rules of thinking, induction and deduction Dogma: authoritatively considered to be an absolute truth Axiom: undemonstrative proposition It is always relative to your perception Deduction: Plato, Socrates, go from a general principle and apply it to a particular instance, apriori (before having the experience) Induction: Aristotle, particular instances and you generalize up to a principle, aposterori (after having the experience) Empirical method The Sophists either believed there were no cosmos and we applied everything, if there was an order we did not know it, or if there was an order which we cannot communicate it well, everything is objective (in the mind) Socrates disagrees: there is a truth Truth is a conception, not a perception, it is a verification with the objective world Syllogism Major premise Minor premise Knowledge is recognition, re-thinking what you already knew (Socrates, Plato) Nous: The power of man to discern truth (Socrates, Plato) Socrates is the wisest man on Earth because he knows he does not know/he knows what he knows is worth nothing Quote of the day: “Profundity is simplicity” Philosophers can either be placed as: Materialists or idealists Subjectivists or objectivists Objectivists: nothing beyond the material Subjectivists: there is something beyond the material Metaphysics is one of the most important 13 disciplines: “Meta”: above/beyond “Physics”: that which is and that which isn’t is defined as a pre-conception/pre-supposition: something you assume beforehand that has not been demonstrated, an un-demonstrated belief, can also be called an axiom: undemonstrated proposition Important because one’s view of reality is what creates the other disciplines Reality is what you see reality to be What drives human thinking more than anything else is paradigm thinking, because what drives human thought the most is fear of the unknown Paradigm thinking: We change things to fit our thinking so that we do not have to change, this is why we need to lead the examined life Subjective: everything inside the mind Objective: everything outside the mind, including the brain Sophists believed “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” Socrates disagrees. Socrates says beauty is objective, it is outside man, we know what reality is because we already knew, believes true is a conception rather than a perception For example, when we look at a beautiful sunrise, essay, rose, how can we compare these if we did not already know what beauty was in the first place? The truth is objective to man and we arrived at it with our subjective mind There is no truth or falseness in the world Deductive thinking: general to specific (on yesterday’s notes) Inductive: specific to general (on yesterday’s notes), the gathering/formation of conceptions after having experiences particular instances Plato’s life: Followed Socrates around when he was 20 for 8 years Hates democracy Came from a rich family in Athens Combination of a poet and philosopher First philosopher to have a complete philosophy system (all 13 disciplines) All ancient greek philosophy was teleological means the end, and the end precedes the beginning Ethics cannot be understood without the politics Deductive thinking- syllogism- major premise- minor premise- conclude something logical What is it we do anything for? Cosmological chain of being Dualism: Reality consists of: Ideas/forms: abstract, universal, infinite, subject, perfect, ideal Universal: true for anyone anywhere anytime Appearances/illusions: concrete, particular, temporal, object, inferior copies concepts are definitions Psyche: essence Knowledge is power and happiness! What is the teleology of Plato? The good “I am that gadfly which God has attached to the state, and all day long... arousing and persuading and reproaching... You will not easily find another like me.” -Plato, Apology

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