Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Honors 9 Notes 12/14/16

Note Key:
 -Underline: Requirement for class
- Italics: Notes synthesized from class discussion
-Red: Main concept or important idea

Honors English Notes: 12/14/16
Only Prewrite for Tomorrow: Thesis Statement + Three topic sentences
Consolidate Theme into one Word:
            Current Theme Ideas: Hubris, Arrogance
                        (Themes such as Jealousy or not thinking before acting, is not a central
                        Theme but still important and insightful)
Thesis opinion: Don’t have excessive pride

Body Paragraphs:
-       Base argument on a literary device
-       “In the story of Daedalus, an anonymous rhapsode teaches us the lesson of Don’t have Excessive pride using the literary devices of…”
1.     Plot Consists of
- Exposition
- Climax
- Antagonist
- Denouement
            Analyze the plot, explain the purpose of each element included
Stewarts Example: how each aspect of the plot demonstrates the Homeric pattern

            Other literary devices the rhapsode uses:
            Most difficult to use because of abstract quality but most valuable
                        Symbols: To Use: Icarus, labyrinth, Talos:
-Point of View/Diction:        
            “…Pride raced away with his wit”
                        Raced: Jumps to conclusion
                        Wit: what he requires to not pay nemesis
            “Character are always positive or negative examples of the theme”
            Homeric pattern: Every single Character has arête, hubris, ate, nemesis

Conventions: Double spaced, 12 pt font, class name date teacher name is upper left hand corner, paginate (put name is upper right hand corner)

Euro Lit Notes 12/14/16

Homework: Read Chapters 25-29 

If there is a snow day tomorrow, read the rest of the book for Friday

Candide Notes Chapters 19-24

Commentary in blue
Important stuff in red

Chapter 19

Candide's paradigm begins to wear away when he meets the slave missing a leg and a hand. Slavery is what begins to shift Candide's paradigm. Candide's naivete is shown when he is swindled by the captain of the ship. 
The only thing we can do, according to Voltaire, is to do the right thing.  
Candide left El Dorado because he loves Cunegonde. Does he?
Voltaire critiques society by asking about the price of sugar. What is the price of our gas and our food?

Chapter 20

Manicheanism is a Persian philosophy that deals with the dualism between light and darkness. Like Zoroastrianism. Or the Force ;) Some say that whether the world is light or dark depends on you. Candide rejects it. Martin focuses on the darkness.
Candide holds on to Pangloss' philosophy despite everything that's happened in his story. It's really hard to escape one's paradigm.
Stoical optimism is saying that everything is okay when everything is not okay according to Candide

Chapter 21

Candide represents stoical optimism. 
Martin represents pessimism and the philosophy of Hobbes.
Debate between Hobbes and Rousseau same sort of thing as the debate between Aristotle and Plato
Mr. Stewart says that the only way one can change themselves is to let go of paradigm thinking.

Chapter 22

 Candide is unfaithful to Cunegonde. Does he love her?

Chapter 23

Candide repairs his paradigm with the statement that everything is going as well as it can possibly can be going.

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

Honors 9 Notes 12/13/16

Read and Reread "Daedalus" to prepare for discussion on Wednesday and essay on Thursday. Pay particular attention to Nuts and Bolts as well as quotations that support the theme. Flesh out your notes to be able to write a fantastic first essay!

Euro Lit Notes 12/13/16

Get caught up on reading tonight! Spot checks tomorrow from Chapter 6. Failure = test projected for Friday.

Candide Notes Chapters 13-18

Student commentary in blue
Important stuff in red

Chapter 13

Satirizing the worst in human nature (Similar outlook to William Golding, who got it from Thomas Hobbes) through the governor of Buenos Aires
Governor is a kind of foil to Candide
Dramatic irony of the cruelty of the governor towards Cunegonde used in order to make audience pity Candide. (Just like Philoctetes)
Voltaire satirizes the Catholic Church through poor morality on the part of the monk, demonstrating his scorn for organized religion. Voltaire was a Deist, a member of a religious philosophy that arose during the Enlightenment period which believed that God set the universe in motion but did not interfere with the daily goings on of the universe. Deist philosophy partially adopted by Catholic Church as exemplified in King Henry V "The time of miracles has ceased." Also think of William Golding's ending to Lord of the Flies. 
Candide is representative of humanity in general, as are many protagonists in literature. Like Candide, we gradually come to know the depravity of humankind

Chapter 14

Voltaire satirizes the Catholic Church further by pointing out how the fathers have benefited massively by a system of economic inequality, while the people have suffered. Echoes of Martin Luther's Theses and the Protestant Reformation here that lead into the Enlightenment era. 
Colonialism, hypocrisy, religion all targets here.
Voltaire's uses situational irony in having the baron actually be alive. Look for how many times this happens in the book. Also, think about how often this happens in modern media.

Chapter 15

Title of the chapter is ironic because the baron dies again.
More satirizing of the church with the baron's comment about the church looking for people they can control.
Dramatic and situational irony in Candide's lament, "I'm the kindest man in the world..."(57) How can one be kind when they kill people? Or if they use a dead man's body to get passage out of the country?
Understatement in Cacambo's attitude surrounding the whole thing.
In modern society, murder is treated with Candide's attitude of "I'm the kindest man in the world" (57) and that a murderer is a good person who made a bad choice.
Are all murderers bad people?
In modern society, people can get away with doing bad things to good people, such as many of the cases taken up by such movements as Black Lives Matter

Chapter 16

Cacambo derived from Yiddish, which translates to "little manure."
Overstatement of Candide's ability to shoot.
Dig at the Spanish with comparing them to the result of inbreeding with monkeys.
Candide holds on to his paradigm of the best of all possible worlds in spite of his capture by the Oreillons. 
Candide shooting the monkeys symbolic of European colonialism. Candide faces the unknown in the New World. 
Candide satirizes religious discrimination in the Oreillons' treatment of Candide after discovering he is not a Jesuit. 
One develops pessimism through difficulties in life. Is that always true?
Candide is a child
Voltaire is satirizing Rousseau in this chapter.
Does Voltaire subscribe to the Hobbesian view of human nature?

Chapter 17

Voltaire uses juxtaposition in this chapter: begins dark and gloomy and then satirical in Voltaire's overstatement of Candide's and Cacambo's journey to El Dorado
El Dorado is an example of the best of all possible worlds. El Dorado is a myth, thus demonstrating Voltaire's scorn for utopianism. Utopia is a word that comes from the book Utopia by Thomas More, meaning the best possible world. Dystopia as exemplified in "Harrison Bergeron," The Hunger Games, and "The Ones who Walk Away from Omelas," is the opposite of utopia.

Chapter 18 

Voltaire's overstatement of the wealth of El Dorado is a further dig at Candide's "best of all possible worlds" because it is too ludicrous to be true.
El Dorado is Voltaire's idea of a utopia full of reason and scientific knowledge, which does not exist.

Monday, December 12, 2016

Honors 9 English - Homework for 12/13/16

Honors 9 English - Homework for 12/13/16

Reread "Daedalus" and analyze WHY the rhapsode has characters say and do what they do, have this or that happen, uses symbolism, diction, etc. in order to prepare to synthesize for Tuesday's discussion on what the myth's theme is in order to write a theme essay on Wednesday.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Henvry V Notes 11/22/16

Henry vs.  Dauphin Notes
Henry puts on a cloak and walks through his troops in disguise, being a good man as well as a good king. The Dauphin gambles with the French, betting how many Englishmen they will kill and capture.
P. 139 Henry meets Pistol, who professes his love for the king without knowing it is him (comatatus relationship)
Bates believes that the king will be captured and ransomed by the enemy while they are all killed (Henry says that the king's cause is just, the soldiers say that, if it is not, their deaths are on the king's hands [Shakespeare saying that the king cannot just appear to be a good king; that he actually has to have an honorable cause for his fight with France])
Henry says that the king said he will not be ransomed, the soldiers doubt the king's word, Henry says that he will never trust the king's word if he is ransomed
Williams hits Henry with a glove and challenges him to a duel, Henry keeps the glove and says that he will duel him after the battle and does not punish him even though it is a crime to hit the king (good man as well as a good king)
Question for Y'all:
What is the significance of "Oh God of Battle?"(What does this speech tell you about who Henry is, not as a king, but as a person?)*
*Note that he is alone
Machiavelli Stuff
Saint Crispin's Day speech (the fewer men, the greater honor we get, the more honor, the more immortal we will be [fox])
"He that hath no stomach for the fight" can leave honorably (Henry will not fight with cowards)
Henry both appears to be and is a good man by fighting on the front lines
P.182 Henry gives the order to kill all of the French prisoners (well employed cruelty, but also potentially out of revenge for the French killing his boys [which would indicate that he is not as good of a man as he may seem to be])
Mountjoy Notes
Calls Henry "King Harry" when he comes for ransom. Why?
P.185 "No, great king" (calls Henry that twice because Henry just kicked the shit out of France's army)

Monday, November 21, 2016

Henry V Notes 11/21/16

 Act 3, scene 1
King Henry sails from England to France and attacks the city of Harfleur. King Charles is alarmed, so he offers King Henry money and his daughter's hand in marriage. Henry turns down the offer. Henry gives famous speech, "Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more." Henry is being a fox once again. He mines underneath the wall and blows a hole using gun powder, and then he charges through.

Act 3, scene 3
Fluellen and MacMorris begin to fight because they do not understand each other. There is a language barrier. A sub-theme of the play is what makes a nation? Common custom and common language. We know that this play was performed in 1599 because of the chorus in Act 5 refers to the general that put down the Irish rebellion in 1599. Meanwhile, the trumpets sound and the town has sounded a parley (cease-fire).

Act 3, scene 4 (read on your own) There is an English lesson in this scene.
Princess Catherine is given an English lesson, she speaks only French. This is a comic relief scene juxtaposed with the serious parts. Important term: Juxtaposition- Two things seen or placed together with contrasting effect.

Act 3, scene 6
Bardolph has been sentenced to death by hanging. Pistol begs Fluellen to save Bardolph's life. Fluellen refuses and Pistol is angry. The news is extended to King Henry, King Henry displays no emotion even though he and Bardolph were friends but approves of the punishment.

You may use what you see in the movie in your essay, but use quotations from the book.

Euro Lit Homework

For Tuesday:
Read up to page 157
Look at hand-out over In-class writing hints

Friday, November 18, 2016

Henry V Notes 11/18/16

Act Two, Scene One
Falstaff is dying because the king has broken his heart (continues to show that, to be a good king, sometimes you cannot be a good man)
Act Two, Scene Two
Henry proves that he's a good ruler by finding out that there are three traitors, knowing who they are, and setting a trap for them (being a fox). He allows the traitors to lie and dig themselves into a hole. They condone the punishment of someone who spoke out against Henry while drunk when he suggests mercy, setting the precedent for their own punishment. When the traitors are told that Henry knows of their treachery, they appeal to Henry's mercy, which they have just rejected in front of him. Henry foxes them into this trap, becomes the lion, and uses well employed cruelty when consigning them to death.
Act Two, Scene Four
Dauphin being a bad ruler, after Mountjoy tells him that Henry means business, the Dauphin doesn't believe him. He overestimates his own military prowess and underestimates his enemy.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

Henry V Notes 11/17/16

Play starts with people whispering about talking Henry into going to war with France, but Henry doesn't automatically do this.
Act One Scene Two
Henry meets with Montjoy, the French ambassador. He is impressed by Henry (who is both a "fox" and a "lion.") He is diplomatic with Montjoy, but allows Montjoy to convey the Dauphin's insult in order to impress his comitatus with his lion-like courage, standing up to the insult and essentially declaring war.

Essay Notes 11/17/16

Must have a head (intro) body (paragraphs) and feet (conclusion)
Author, title, genre, big picture idea (thesis statement), supporting ideas of the big picture idea (examples from the text, how is it supported by plot, characters, symbols, etc)
Your reasons supporting your thesis opinion. What is your reason, give some examples from the text supporting your reason, and then explain why these examples support your thesis.
Restate thesis, then show your understanding of the play. Connect it to something outside the text, critique your own thesis, critique the theme of the play. Be original, show that you are not a robot. 

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

The Prince Notes 11/16/16

"The temper of the multitude is fickle" (p. 14)
The fundamentals of Machiavelli's reasoning is laid out. He believes that humans will not listen to you unless you serve a use to them. He talks about, essentially, the same "mass of men" Aristotle referred to. The way a prince stays in power is by fear. This thought is echoed, once again, from Aristotle, who believes that the "mass of men" has no sense of shame and live at the "beck and call of passion." 
"A prince must learn to be other than good" (36)
What is is more important than what aught to be. A prince should be able to live with the realities of the world and he would lose power in a world where people are not good.
Armies which are national are inherently stronger (36)
Pay attention to that for Henry V.
5,000 purely national Englishmen defeated 40,000 Frenchmen and mercenaries.
"A Prince should have no care or thought but for war" (37)
When things are not going well domestically, leaders start a foreign war
"Mercy, good faith, integrity, humanity, and religion"
 Machiavelli says that a good leader should appear to have these qualities, but can violate these good qualities if need be. Shakespeare says that a king should have all of these qualities in actuality, but, sometimes a ruler cannot be a good man.
Why might a ruler not honor his word? (47)
"We look to results" (47). If a prince succeeds in his goal, the end will justify his means and people will respect him.
"Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason? Why, if it prosper, none dare call it treason." ~ Sir John Harrington
It doesn't matter what a prince does, as long as he is strong.
"How should a prince illicit advice from his followers?" (63)
You cannot be simply flattered, but you also cannot be told the truth by everyone.  As a prince, you need to pick certain people who can freely speak their mind with you (comitatus relationship).


Wednesday, November 9, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 11/09/16

Due Thursday:
Read "The Battle of Maldon"
Write Study Guide Answers
Bring Student ID Cards
Food can drive

Monday, November 7, 2016

Euro Lit Notes 11/07/16

Great Quotes/Paraphrases in today's discussion Period 1 and 2:

Conversation about Bullies:
- Do not look for enemies where there aren't any.
-This meditation is a good philosophy for self-preservation which is not always good if you are trying or need to uphold others.
Is it possible to be indifferent and uphold others? -Yes, you can put yourself into another person's shoes and not be emotional with them.
Should we get out of the way of bullies? -Yes and no, if it's a one time thing you can ignore the situation, but if it continues you should confront them. 
-Subjective for every situation.

Key phrase: I will gladly change.

-If he is proven wrong then he will change.
-But then there is subjective truth. Example, parents believe vaccinations are bad  (causes autism) even when given evidence that they are extremely beneficial.

-There is no possible way to not take opinions from others. Our ideas are built from past ideas. Another word for stoicism is indifference.
-We should live the examined life, we should have meaning and value of our own actions.

Key phrase: Live everyday as if it's your last.

-Take in everything with a purpose.
-Don't live under the fear of death.
- You do not need to live everyday of your life to the extreme, but don't completely waste away your day. If you are sick get better, if you are sad take some time for yourself whatever that may be, but then reach out to a friend. If you are completely healthy and happy then do something more even if that something seems small.

Euro Lit Homework 11/07/16

 Due Thursday 11/10/16
Read "The Battle of Maldon"
Write Study Guide Answers

Friday, October 28, 2016

Aristotle Notes 10/28/16


Essence of human beings: psyche
                                        irrational                rational
                                        /           \              /       |      \
                               vegetative     appetite     moral    intellectual     (highest achievement)
                                                               \       reason   reason     
                                                              (controlled by the doctrine of the mean)
 What is the job of philosophy? To explain the nature of things.
An idea is an essence of reality, reality is universal in the particular.
How does Aristotle explain motion? Everything is going from the potential to the actual. Aristotle's philosophy is teleological (study of the end), the end precedes everything.
All men are mortal therefore Aristotle is   __________.

Which came first the acorn or the tree? 

According to Aristotle the acorn precedes the tree because it holds the potential to become the tree. 

4 Causes that explain the nature of the universe: Material (the lump of clay), Efficient (Sculptor makes it change), Formal (Ideas are synonymous of the form), Final (precedes it all, teleological)
(Note: Nothing can be explained with causes, this should be the 4 reasons) 

Aristotle's metaphysics is cosmological (i.e. reality) chain of being (all things are linked together) 

Know these terms: A priori and A posteriori

Get ready for Essay:
*Do not write a narrative. Do not tell Watson about Philoctetes. Impress Watson with how well you know about Aristotle. How deep can you go with it? 
Read Handout "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs"
You do not need people once you have achieved the highest level of happiness or do you? How can you use this with Philoctetes? 

Moral happiness is the second degree of happiness: A just man needs people in order to be just. 
You have to overcome that second degree of happiness in order to become happy with people.

Euro Lit Homework 10/28/16

Aristotle Essay Due Monday

Lori Sauter comes to talk about Jr. Project!

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 10/26/16

For Thursday Read Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics, Book 10"

Answer Study Guide Questions

Aristotle Essay Due Monday 10/31/16

Monday: Lori Sauter comes to talk about Jr. Project

Monday, October 24, 2016

Aristotle Notes 10/24/16

Essence of Aristotle's philosophy is based on motion.
Mr. Stewart wants you to take away this learning objective for the day: Which came first the chicken or the egg?

4 Causes that explain what reality is. The process of change is going from the potential to the actual.
Note: Causes cannot explain the nature of the universe but reason can.
Example of 4 causes using Statue of Hermes:
Material: the statue starts off as a blob of bronze it cannot be absolutely formless.
Efficient: The sculpture molds it and gives it a new form.
Formal: An idea
Final: Is absolute complete actualization. The end proceeded any change at all. Teleological.

Important Quotes from Aristotle's "The Doctrine of The Mean"

"It is a way of doing things," It is not the end goal, it is the journey that creates the happiness.

Pay attention to the differences of the common man, the plain man, and the ordinary man.

"What is good for one person may not be good for another." You cannot find out what is good for you prior to experimentation.

"virtues of moderation" According to Aristotle this is the means to happiness or the "golden mean."

Criticism of Aristotle: No absolutes, Always in moderation

Euro Lit Homework 10/24/16

For Tuesday Read Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics," Book 1
Read "Man as Responsible Agent"

For Wednesday Read Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics," Book 2
Write Study Guide Answers
Book 10 Due Friday

Mr. Stewart will not be present on Tuesday 10/25/16 and may or may not be on Wednesday.

Euro Lit Homework 10/24/16

For Tuesday Read Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics," Book 1
Read "Man as Responsible Agent"

For Wednesday Read Aristotle's "Nichomachean Ethics," Book 2
Write Study Guide Answers
Book 10 Due Friday

Friday, October 21, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 10/21/16

For Monday:
Read "Pleasure and Happiness"
Answer Study Guide Questions (All Do Full Monty on #7)
Read "The Doctrine of The Mean"
Bring Student ID Cards

Monday, October 17, 2016

Allegory of the Den Notes 10/17/16

What keeps you shackled?
Comfort, the cave is comfortable and we do not want to leave it.
Society, we are being told that certain things are true, so we accept that they are true.
Fear of the unknown, we shackle ourselves, do not want the other paradigm.
Prisoners accept that the walls are the truth of reality, they do not want to change their conception of what truth is, it is easier to stay ignorantly blissful than it is to escape and shift your paradigm.
Herd mentality, we do not want to be the person who questions everything and is ridiculed for it (just look at Socrates, he challenged Athens' paradigm and was killed for it). Humans are social beings.
What does the freed prisoner do?
He escapes the cave, wants to go back, but realizes that he has no choice but to accept this new reality.
Why would the prisoner be seen as ridiculous upon his return?
What the prisoner is describing, the prisoners have no reference for. Additionally, the herd mentality of the prisoners prevents them from agreeing with the one who escaped, as they are afraid of being ridiculed as well.

Socrates Notes 10/17/16

All philosophers prior to Socrates believed that everything boils down to something material.
Sophists, thinkers prior to Socrates, believed 1 of 3 things: There is no cosmos (objective truth), there is a cosmos, but we can never know it, or there is a cosmos, we know it, but we can never communicate it. These thoughts prove that the Sophists were not purely materialists, as they essentially believed in a subjective truth, or, a truth that the mind has to choose.
Socrates believes there is an objective truth, which we can know. He agrees with the Sophists that the world is not purely material, but disagrees that there is no objective truth.
We have knowledge of things because we know the "ideal" of an object or concept.  (We recognize two different things as beautiful because there is an objective, infinite beauty.)
Edmund Husserl
Emmanuel Kant

Euro Lit Homework 10/17/16

For Tuesday Read Plato's "Crito"
Answer study guide questions

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 10/12/16

 Due Thursday:
Read "Allegory of the Den"
Answer Study Guide Questions for "Allegory of the Den"
Turn in Sophocles book by Thursday
Bring ID Cards

Allegory of the Den Study Guide 10/12/16

Study Guide Questions for Plato’s The Allegory of the Den.

1.     If a prisoner is released from the cave and compelled to look toward the light, he will at first suffer pain. Why? He will also be perplexed and “fancy that the shadows which he formerly saw are truer than the objects which are now shown to him.” Why would he be perplexed and make this mistake?
2.     What are the stages of the liberated prisoner’s experience outside of the cave?
3.     Socrates says that if such a liberated prisoner returned to the cave, his former companions would find him “ridiculous.” Why would they find him ridiculous? Who is basically ridiculous?
4.     4. By line 107, Socrates has completed the “story” level of his allegory. He proceeds to “translate” it; that is,  to indicate its significant “meaning” level and to suggest some of its implications. In your own words, what is this meaning level, and what are some of its implications? To what extent do you find Socrates’s point about  our human tendency to confuse “shadows” with “reality” relevant today?
5.     5. Write a conclusion paragraph on the theme of the allegory. Start with a thesis restatement of the theme. Then, suggest another or other “caves” in modern life in which people might be “imprisoned”--- or feel imprisoned.

Monday, October 10, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 10/10/16

Read "Symposium" by Plato and answer study guide questions for Tuesday.
First College Bowl Tuesday
Bring Student ID Cards

Friday, October 7, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 10/7/16

Read the Philosophy Handout by Monday

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Philoctetes Notes 10/4/16

"Never, if of my will I must see Troy" (1392) [He will never choose to see Troy]
"Let me suffer what I must suffer" (1397) [Philoctetes chooses the suffering he knows over the potential for more suffering. What motivates Philoctetes, and, by extension, human beings, to stay and suffer is the fear of the unknown]
"I shall not disobey" (1447) [Philoctetes doesn't choose, he simply obeys Heracles after the god tells him everything that is doing to happen. He never overcomes his fear of the unknown; he never makes his own choice]

Monday, October 3, 2016

Philoctetes Notes 10/3/16

FYI: I have just written down the line numbers for Philoctetes notes, not the page numbers.

"Suffering has broken me" (1101) [Philoctetes blames suffering for his choice to stay]
"It was you who doomed yourself" (1094) [Chorus tells us Philoctetes is still most responsible for his predicament. He was given a bad lot when he stepped on the snake and was abandoned, but is still responsible for his choice not to leave the island]
"Are we slaves and not free?" (994)
"It lies with you to avoid your doom" (1164) [We see once again that Philoctetes is responsible for his fate, he can choose to leave]
"It is no occasion for anger when a man with storms of sorrow speaks against his better judgement" (1194-1196) [He admits that he is making the wrong decision]
"My mind is set on death […] I tell you" (1209) [he prefers death to suffering]

Friday, September 30, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 9/29/16

Re-read Philoctetes over weekend for essay.
We will finish our reading of Philoctetes on Monday.
Read What is a Tragedy? handout, bros.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Euro Lit Homework 9/26/16

Reading Quiz Philoctetes terms on Wednesday

Thursday, September 22, 2016


Achilles wrath goes away, he was full of rage towards Agamemnon, Hector, and himself
Priam reminds him of his own father and Achilles doesn't kill him (grief leads him to have compassion)
(450) "Think of your own father, who is the same age as I, and has nothing but old age and misery ahead of him" 
Priam tells Achilles to think of what his father would feel if he discovered Achilles had died
(450) "[…] thinking of his own father […] brought him to the verge of tears" 
Apollo is pissed off because Achilles is desecrating Hector's body (the gods have wrath too), but Achilles begins to recognize that his actions are wrong "he is suffering"(437)
"He had better beware of our wrath" (438) [the gods are projections, they are flawed like us, they have wrath because we have wrath]
Achilles wrath goes away because he sees that Priam is suffering, and he is reminded of his own suffering: "Achilles wept for his father and then again for Patrocolus" (451)
Achilles helps Priam up "in compassion" (451) and gives him Hector's body back
Achilles tells Priam, "we men are wretched things" (451) [CIVILIZATION IS COMPASSION, WE ARE DUALISTIC AS HUMANS, SAVAGERY VS. COMPASSION, Achilles is angry as a lion, and is compassionate as a man]
We are imperfect, the gods are imperfect because we are imperfect, we learn from our mistakes (compassion comes from suffering)
Achilles offers a feast to Priam, Priam asks for the body back immediately, Achilles tells Priam not to "drive him too hard"
WHAT CHANGES: Achilles loses his wrath
WHAT MAKES IT CHANGE: He suffers, and recognizes Priam's suffering, thereby showing compassion
IN WHAT WAY DOES IT CHANGE: Momentarily; after Priam asks for the body back, Achilles snaps back into wrath 
WHY DOES THE AUTHOR HAVE IT CHANGE THAT WAY: Humans are dualistic, we aren't just civilized Achilles, we are also the lion, we have to choose to be civilized

  • Athene is "itching" to kill Hector (402)
  • Zeus is not seriously considering saving Hector
  • "Apollo deserted [Hector]" (402) not so compassionate

Hector fights Achilles, he has free will
Hector fights out of a sense of duty to Troy and a sense of guilt
  • Refuses to withdraw the army, realizes that he "certainly ought to have" withdrawn the army as Polydamas suggested
Hector fights because he has the Homeric Pattern like all of us imperfect humans
  1. Arete: "win glory for my father" (129) [Hector wants to win glory, decides to stick "to his post" (399)]
  2. Hubris: "How could I face the Trojan ladies in their trailing gowns?" [Hector's pride would be wounded if he didn't fight Achilles]
  3. Ate: Hector "stuck to his post" and decides to fight Achilles (399), exceeding the bounds meant for him buy the universe
  4. Nemesis: Hector is killed
Hector also fails to have compassion
  • He wants to behead Patrocolus and throw his body to the dogs

Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Iliad Essay Advice


1. An introduction including...

  • A hook to grab Watson's attention and to introduce the topic (examples: start with a question [which you must answer by the end of your essay] a quotation, a statistic, an anecdote, etc)
  • Introduce the name of the author, the work's title, the genre (example: Cormac McCarthy's novel No Country for Old Men), and overview the ideas you will discuss in your essay to support your thesis opinion
  • State your thesis opinion (in this case who is responsible for Hector's death and the epic's theme)
2. Three body paragraphs unified by an analysis of Hector's death
  • Your reasons must support the thesis and must include…
  • Details, observations, and examples including quotations and explanations which support your reasons (NO PLOP QUOTATIONS)
  • Appropriate topic sentences, featuring transitional words and phrases between ideas
3. A conclusion paragraph which assesses the epic's theme
4. Sentence fluency
5. Good use of conventions
6. Third person point of view, present tense verbs (only break this rule intentionally

  • You don't have to write a five paragraph essay, but you must analyze the theme of the work and go as deep as you can go into the epic's theme
  • This will be graded by impressing Watson with your knowledge of the epic and your analysis of Homer's stance on some theme

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Iliad Notes 9/20/16

Achilles had a premonition of what had happened [i.e. he knew] (337)
Finds out that Patrocolus is dead, loses it
Achilles calls out to Thetis, tells her that he doesn't want to live unless he kills Hector, to which she responds that Achilles will certainly die after killing him
Achilles responds that he deserves to die because he "failed to save his friend from death (338) [Achilles kills two birds with one stone by killing Hector: Hector for revenge, himself out of guilt]
Hector wants to drag Patrocolus off to behead him, will not let go of the body, clings to it like a "famished lion" (341)
Achilles lets out a battle cry, Polydamas tells the Trojans to go back to the city, Hector says no (343)
Thetis has Hephaestus make Achilles a suit of armor and a shield (which is a symbol of…?)
Agamemnon and Achilles squash their beef, Agamemnon still blames his stupid ass decision making on Zeus and the gods (356)
Achilles stops eating and sleeping, Athene gives him the nectar of the gods [Achilles is surpassing what it means to be human] (363)

Achilles knew (consciously or unconsciously? We can infer that it was unconsciously) that Patrocolus would die, chose to let him go to force his own decision to kill Hector
Lion Pages: 343, 345, 352, 370, 404, 438, 452
The shield is split between depictions of civilized society, and depictions of animals (LIONS ONCE AGAIN)

Monday, September 19, 2016

Iliad Notes 9/19/16

BOOK 16 
Patrocolus wants revenge on Agamemnon, wants to be spared from "vindictive feelings" (293)
His pride has been wounded, he's angry
He indulges his anger, calls himself a "monster" (297) is driven by hubris
Patrocolus asks Achilles if he knows of any prophesies, Achilles says if he does, it does "not affect his conduct" (293) [that's a lie, he hasn't killed Hector for nine and a half years because of a prophecy]
Achilles agrees to lend Patrocolus his armor, tells him not to seize glory and go farther than the wall (planting the seed for Patrocolus to chase them back to the wall, Achilles knows he's sending him to his death [consciously or unconsciously?], Patrocolus' death will force Achilles to make the decision)
Hector sets fire to the Achaen ships
Achilles prays to Zeus, "grant me another wish […] bless (Patrocolus) with victory [..], so that Hector […] may find out whether my squire can fight on his own […], let him come back to me" (298)
He wants glory of killing Hector and Patrocolus' life, Zeus grants half of his prayer
Patrocolus pushes the Trojans back, could have obeyed Achilles, but "the thoughts of Zeus outstrip the thoughts of men" (310) [but gods are anthropomorphic projections, so Patrocolus chooses himself] and he decides to continue to the walls of Troy
Apollo helps Hector kill Patrocolus
Greeks and Trojans fight over Patrocolus' body, Hector wants the body in order to behead Patrocolus and feed his body to the dogs (318-319) [wants to scare the Greeks off, is Hector really so civilized?]

Predestination vs. Free Will
The Fates decreed Patrocolus' death, but he still chose to go too far and storm the gates
"He was a fool and made a fatal error" (310)

Euro Lit Homework 9/19/16

Read Book 18 and Book 19 by Wednesday
Keep an eye on Achilles
Who is responsible for Hector's death?

Friday, September 16, 2016

Potential Iliad Themes 9/16/16

Humans are fallible

  • Gods are imperfect, etc
What motivates humans more than anything is the fear of death
  • Achilles hasn't killed Hector yet because he knows he'll die
  • Allows us/motivates us to strive for excellence
Remember, "The Wrath of Achilles is my theme"

  • How does Achilles change?
  • What makes him change?

Iliad Notes 9/16/16


  • Greek leaders are injured, as is Machaon the surgeon
  • Trojans are pounding at the wall the Greeks have built
  • Agamemnon suggests that the Greeks run, Odysseus calls him a
  • Nestor has suggested that Patrocolus impersonate Achilles and go face the Trojans
  • Poseidon, disguised as an old man, tells Agamemnon that the Greeks will win in the end
  • Hera distracts Zeus with sexy times (using Aphrodite's girdle) so Poseidon can continue interfering with the war
  • Poseidon helps the Greeks push the Trojans back to the plain
  • Hector is wounded by Aeius, Zeus sends Apollo to get Hector back into the fight after realizing that Poseidon has interfered in the battle
  • (273) Zeus foreshadows the death of Patrocolus
  • (274) Aries' son is killed, Aries begs to go fight even if he dies (Are the Gods immortal?)
  • The Trojans breach the wall (Part Two, Electric Boogaloo) and fight the Greeks back to the ships
  • Patrocolus decides that he cannot ignore the suffering of the Greeks anymore, decides to try and talk Achilles into the fight (286)
  • Hector tells the Trojans to burn the ships, Aeius holds them off with a giant spear made of an oar

European Literature Homework 9/16/16

50 Point Test on Monday

  • Who is responsible for Patrocolus' death?

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Iliad Notes 9/15/16

  • Aeius (Wall of a Man) fights Hector to a draw
  • Trojans go on the offensive, Greeks build a wall to protect themselves, and it's "HUGE" (but the Trojans don't pay for it)
  • Poesidon didn't get his sacrifices before the wall got built near the oceans
  • Trojans reach the wall, Zeus tells the Gods not to interfere
  • Trojans are kicking the Greeks' asses, Hera complains (157)
  • Zeus says that the Greeks are going to get their asses kicked even more, that they will be pushed back to the ships until Patrocolus dies and Achilles takes up arms to kill Hector
  • Agamemnon suggests that they run away (same as on page 43, but now he really wants to leave)
  • Nestor suggests that they give Achiles a "humble apology" (164), Agamemnon agrees
  • Says he'll give Achilles reparations if Achilles submits himself to Agamemnon (which Odysseus realizes is a bad idea as he is sent to speak to Achilles)
  • Achilles is told to keep a check on his proud spirit, for a "kind heart is a better thing than pride" (167), Achilles spurns Agamemnon's offer
  • Achilles admits that he already fought Hector on Day One at the Scean Gate and that Hector was lucky to escape alive (Was it luck?)
  • Is told to think about the greater good, Achilles says that he "has no use for the Acheans' good opinion" (175) [he's becoming more and more godlike]
  • As the fighting continues, all of the Greeks leaders are injured, then their surgeon is injured (Achilles notices, thinks that the Greeks will come and kiss his ass soon)
  • (203) "Unlucky man. He was fighting for his country…" (Anti-war quote)
  • Agamemnon is injured, leaves the fighting, Hector and Trojans press their advantage 
  • Paris shoots Diomedes through the foot (lion metaphor shows up again)
  • Odysseus debates whether or not to save Diomedes, gets injured saving him
  • (213) Achilles calls for Patrocolus, the beginning of Patrocolus' end, wants to know if the surgeon was injured
  • (218) Nestor speaks to Patrocolus, "But even so, it is not too late for you to talk to Achilles […] you may coax him into action […] if not, let him give you his […] armor […] so you may fight the Trojans in his stead"
  • What motivates humankind more than anything else?
  • Homer thinks it's the fear of death
  • (172) Achilles will either live without fame or die in Troy, has taken 9.5 years to make the decision whether or not to kill Hector because he knows that once he dies, his fate is sealed (Fame is the closest thing to immortality, but you still have to die)
  • Who is responsible for Patrocolus' death?

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Iliad Notes 9/14/16

When last we saw our heroes…

  • Achilles fought with Agamemnon, who would not return the priestess he captured
  • Agamemnon agrees to return her, but takes Briseis from Achilles, making Achilles sad and mad
  • Achilles asks his mother to talk to Zeus
  • Thetis does, and Zeus says that the Greeks will not be able to win the war without Achilles
  • Achilles stops fighting
  • Greeks start getting their asses kicked, cannot defeat Hector without Achilles
  • Diomedes is a foil to Achilles; he is concerned with the greater good of the Greeks whereas Achilles only cares about his own personal gripe with Agamemnon
  • Diomedes is insulted by Agamemnon but gets over it
  • This moment makes us second guess our sympathy for Achilles, who is "sulking by the ships" (90)
  • Man is self surpassing, we have that strive for excellence
  • "Man's reach should exceed his grasp, else why is there a heaven?" -Robert Browning
  • Athene gives Diomedes "resolution and audacity" (92), or arete, to go out into battle
  • Greeks and Trojans fight, gods withdraw from the fighting
  • Relentless realism in battle sequences, deaths are brutal
  • Greeks are getting slaughtered, but Diomedes is fighting well
  • Panderus decides to fight Diomedes (also driven by arete, but also hubris), gets killed
  • Athene allows Diomedes to see the gods, tells him to fight Aphrodite, he wounds her on the hand
  • Ares is wounded in the gut
  • Page 95, Diomedes is likened to a "lion," so pay attention to that too
  • Diomedes is in "a mood to fight Zeus himself" (104)

Friday, September 9, 2016

Iliad Notes 9/9/16

Written by Homer, even balance between Greeks and Trojans

  • Follows the Wrath of Achilles
  • First line is "The Wrath of Achilles is my theme," so pay attention to that
  • Apollo started the conflict (God of Archery, Medicine)
  • Iliad picks up about 9.5 years into the war, is not concerned with anything but the Wrath of Achilles
  • Follows Greeks (Achaeans) as they attempt to breach the walls of Troy, which they have not been able to do
  • Raided the temple of Apollo and kidnapped Priseis and Briseis, priestesses of Apollo
  • The priestesses are ultimate trophies
  • Apollo sends a plague and a bunch of arrows, forces Greeks back to the beach)
Important to know: Gods are projections of psyche, act like people, show that man is self surpassing (Kronos castrates Neptune, Zeus castrates Kronos, what's going to happen to Zeus…? Why is he afraid of man?)

Literary technique used by Homer:
  • Epithet: Short adjective, descriptor of a character (i.e. swift Achilles, horse-eyed Hera)
What started the war?
Paris is the younger prince of Troy. His older brother is Hector, also a prince and the commander of Troy's army. Their father is Priam, King of Troy, their mother, Heccuba, Queen of Troy. A prophecy states that, if Paris is not killed as a baby, Troy will fall. His parents abandon him on a mountainside, but he survives. As an older man, he is asked by Athene, Hera, and Aphrodite who the most beautiful goddess is. He claims that Aphrodite is, which causes Athene and Hera to hate Troy.
Meanwhile, in Greece, Helen is married to Menelaus. She is taken to Troy by Paris and the Greeks invade to get her back. (but also, probably, to take down a powerful civilization and get land)

Ideas of the Epic:
Freedom vs. Happiness (will you be blissfully ignorant, or deal with the harsh truth of the reality)
Freedom vs. Predestination (many things in life are fated to happen, but you still are responsible for how you deal with your lot)

Monday, June 6, 2016

HW 6/6

European Literature:
Read: 1984 pgs. 122-147

English 9 Honors:

Friday, June 3, 2016

HW 6/3

European Literature:
Read:  1984 pgs. 88-122

English 9 Honors:

Thursday, June 2, 2016

HW 6/2

European Literature:
Read: 1984 pgs. 43-87

English 9 Honors:

Wednesday, June 1, 2016


European Literature:
Read: 1984 pgs. 5-43

English 9 Honors:

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

HW 5/31

European Literature:
Review: Existentialism for 200 point essay

English 9 Honors:
Review: Flies for 150 point final (10 matching, 20 multiple-choice)
Bring student ID card

Friday, May 27, 2016

HW 5/27

European Literature:
Read: Martin Heidegger's "What is Metaphysics?"
Complete: study guide, full monty required only for #30
Bring: student ID card and Tolstoy's book

English 9 Honors:
Finish reading LOTF pgs. 124-202

Thursday, May 26, 2016

HW 5/26

European Literature:
Read: Camus' "The Guest" and "The Myth of Sisyphus"
Answer: study guide questions, full monty REQUIRED

English 9 Honors:
Read: chapters 5-7 of The Lord of the Flies

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

HW 5/25

European Literature:
Read: "The Love Song of Alfred Prufrock"
Answer: study guide questions, full monty NOT required

English 9 Honors:
Read: Chapters 3-4 of The Lord of the Flies

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

HW 5/24

European Literature:
Read: "The Wall" by Jean-Paul Sartre

English 9 Honors:
Read: Chapters 1-2 pgs. 5-42 of The Lord of the Flies

Monday, May 23, 2016

HW 5/23

European Literature:
Read: Existentialism packet pgs. 15-16, 19-25

English 9 Honors:
Bring: student ID card

Friday, May 20, 2016

HW 5/20

European Literature:
Read: "The Death of Ivan Ilych"
Complete: study guide

English 9 Honors:
Pre-write: London essay

Thursday, May 19, 2016

HW 5/19

European Literature:
Bring: student ID card

English 9 Honors:
Re-read: Jack London's "To Build a Fire"
Prepare: to discuss

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

HW 5/18

European Literature:
Due Thursday 5/19
Read: "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" from The Brother's Karamazov
Complete: study guide answers
FULL MONTY required

English 9 Honors:
Read: Jack London's "To Build a Fire"
Prepare: to discuss

Friday, May 13, 2016

HW 5/13

European Literature:
Due Thursday 5/19
Read: Fyodor Dostoyvsky's "Legend of the Grand Inquisitor" from The Brothers Karamazov
Answer study guide questions, FULL MONTY required

English 9 Honors:
Read: Jack London's "To Build a Fire"
Prepare: to discuss

Wednesday, May 11, 2016

HW 5/11

European Literature:
Read: Chapters 6 and 7 of Demian and "Jacob's Wrestling" handout in packet

English 9 Honors:
Bring: 4 flowchart essays to turn in

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

HW 5/10

European Literature:
Read: Chapter 5 of Demian

English 9 Honors:
Project: on what you'll do tomorrow
Review: weaknesses on previous essays, what will you improve?

Monday, May 9, 2016

HW 5/9

European Literature:
Re-read: "Evil" and finish pre-writing essay

English 9 Honors:
Read: Chapter 4 of Demian

Friday, May 6, 2016

HW 5/6

European Literature:
Read: Chapter 3 of Demian and "The Repentant Thief" in packet

English 9 Honors:
Re-read: "Evil" and begin pre-writing essay
The bootcamp is almost over yay!

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

HW 5/3

European Literature:
Re-read: Pages 1-6 of Jung packet as needed
Bring student ID and Jane Eyre

English 9 Honors:
Re-read: "Evil" and prepare to discuss
Read/edit/score partner's essay due Wednesday

Friday, April 29, 2016

HW 4/29

European Literature:
Read: Goethe's "Faust" and complete study guide
Read: "Discourse on Method"
Read: Hegel's "Lordship and Bondage" and complete study guide

English 9 Honors: 
Read: "The Possibility of Evil" once Sunday night
What did you feel at the end?

Thursday, April 28, 2016

The Flash Notes 4/28

The Flash Notes 4/28!!!!!!!

Calvino=fable writer. Flash=didactic allegory short story (simple story with deeper symbolic meaning). Everything is symbolic.

3 changes ironically: 
  1. I has Flash “it happened”. The crowd (society) makes I have flash. Crowd inspires I because if there were no crowd, there would be no need to question society.
  2. I loses it. The crowd (crab-bucket mentality) makes I lose flash “so what do you mean?” Crowd doesn’t understand and think I is crazy. Ironically crowd scares I out of it because crowd is scared/jealous/intimidated by I, scared of unknown. Paradigm thinking, fear that their beliefs are wrong. Society depends on people’s flashes, and yet society rejects/kills those with insight. Even before crowd scares I out of it, I scares I’self out of it due to fear of alienation. 
  3. I regrets and wants it back “instinctively.” Human nature is striving for excellence. I learns from experience, has moment of recognition. We make mistakes but what makes us self-surpass is learning from our mistakes. Humans also want what they can’t have.
Why 1st person? Reader learns firsthand. We feel the theme because it’s happening to “I.” We are forced to talk about the story using “I.” Slipping into “he” is sexist and dumb. We are trained to make masculinity the norm by the stupid stupid patriarchy.

Plot (nonconformist structure underscores theme)
Antagonist: crowd, ironically scare I out of it because they are scared of I, the prime motivation for humans is fear of death, the unknown, and paradigm thinking
Setting: street, crowd both inspires and scares the flash away
Ext confl q: Can I keep the flash and share it? “desperate to explain myself, to have them share the flash of insight”
Int confl q: Can I get over I’s fear of alienation? Will I conform? Before Flash, “I had accepted everything.” Accepted (repeated twice)=conformed to. Will I let I’self be defeated and not go after the flash again? Will I learn from I’s mistakes? Will I self-surpass?
Int confl Res: “the laugh died in my throat.” Notice diction of “died.” Refrain of the laughter from beginning of story. Laugh symbolic that having the flash is good/fun.
Ext confl res: “I made off amid their angry glares” shows I couldn’t share flash. I is being persecuted, exiled by crowd. Angry at what they do not understand.
Denouement: changes from past to present tense. I has courage to decide to seek flash again. “Instinctively filled with the hope (...) other kind of knowledge.”

Symbolism (didactic allegory so everything is symbolic)
crossroads: decisions, #1: will I be able to overcome fear of alienation, #2: will I learn from the mistake and choose to have the bravery to be a nonconformist? 
“I”: individual, freedom, reader
crowd: society, crab-bucket, herd mentality
laugh: having the flash is good/fun
tone: ????
mood: ????

“instinctively,” “impulse”
“blushed,” “ashamed.” Why is I ashamed but still tries to share insight? Ironically by trying to share insight I loses insight.

Comparisons: Oedipus, Theseus, Siddhartha, Harrison Bergeron, others
Real thinking: self-surpassing, instinct, crab-bucket
What is individuality? Paradox: we are all alike because we are all unique
Subtheme: Don’t put down people who have flashes

HW 4/28

European Literature:
Read: Goethe's "Faust" and complete study guide
Read: "Discourse on Method"
Read: Hegel's "Lordship and Bondage" and complete study guide

English 9 Honors:
Pre-write: "The Flash" essay

Wednesday, April 27, 2016

The Flash Notes 4/27

Flash Notes 4/27

  • Plot Analysis: 
    • Protagonist: “I”, represents the individual
    • Antagonist: Crowd, represents society
    • Ext. conflict: Can I keep the flash and share it?
      • “desperate to explain myself to have them share my flash of insight”, the word desperate implies that I has a strong desire to share the flash because I does not truly understand it so I must communicate it to other people 
      • I wants to benefit society
      • I wants to share the flash because it was the crowd that inspired I to have the flash 
      • I loses the flash when I tries to share it due to fear of alienation (ironic)
    • Int. conflict: Can I overcome the fear of alienation?
      • “I’m sorry, perhaps it was me that was wrong” after I tells the crowd and they negatively react I is convinced I was wrong
      • “I blushed, ashamed” I talks Iself out of the flash before I even tells the crowd
      • "accepted" 
    • Setting: at a crossroads (symbol)
    • Exposition: In the middle of a crowd (ironic)
    • Intro to conflict: I gets the flash (paragraph 3)
    • Climax: loses flash 
    • Int&Ext conflict res: NO (“made off” par. 6”)
      • Internal resolution quotation: “Laughed died in my throat” because I’s initial reaction is “I laughed”
    • Denouement: THIRD CHANGE!!! Entire last paragraph: I learns the lesson that is the theme & DON’T CONFORM YOURSELF!!! Implicit admission of ignorance
      • wisest man on earth knows that he knows nothing- that’s why he is the wisest.
      • seed planting: “all knowledge begins in wonder” -the Greeks
  • Symbolism: 
    • Crossroads- choice of whether I will conform or not AND choice of whether or not I will strive for the flash again
    • Why do we have crab bucket mentality? We are social beings, we all have the fear of alienation, jealously 
    • Why do we have the fear of alienation?

HW 4/27

European Literature:
Finish the novel!
Final on Friday :)

English 9 Honors:
Re-read "The Flash" and prepare to discuss

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

The Flash Notes 4/26

The Flash Notes 4/26

  • POV
    • I: first person narrator
    • I: the individual, freedom from society, freedom to be happy, conformity, nonconformity because I has the moment of realization, etc.
    • Calvino purposely uses “I” to make oneself feel like the protagonist
    • Crossroads: decision to confront the flash and face alienation or forget the flash and conform
      • The Road Not Taken, Thomas Edison, etc. 
  • PLOT: Individual v.s. Society
    • I: the protagonist
    • Internal Conflict Question: Will I be able to handle alienation?
    • External Conflict Question: Can I not conform? 
    • External Conflict Antagonist: society
    • Similar to “Harrison Bergeron”, Harrison (individual) v.s. Moon Glampers (society)
      • I handicaps themselves by forgetting the flash, George handicaps himself by drinking the beer and watching the television
      • I has a moment of anagnorisis 
      • I is different than Harrison because I conforms to society but Harrison does not conform and even dies as a result
    • I chose to forget the flash because they “started to laugh” and was ashamed before society even knew- which is why we feel sad/bad at the end
    • Compare to “Harrison Bergeron” 
  • CHARACTER: always a positive or negative example of the theme 
    • I: both positive and negative, positive because negative because I wasn’t able to avoid conformity 
    • What changes? I has the flash and then loses it, “It happened”, I wants to have the flash again
    • What makes it change? The crowd, “happened in the middle of a crowd” 
    • In what way does it change? I scares Iself out because of the fear of alienation
      • First seen with “The laugh died in my throat”, then “I blushed ashamed”, I pulls Iself down even before society does because I knows how society will act 
    • Why does Calvino have it change that way? Why a crowd? When I has the flash the first thing I wants to do is communicate it
    • What causes I to have the flash? The crowd, it was in the benefit of society
    • The crowd gives I the flash and takes it away

  • THEME: Do not conform